What is the operating system? What does it do?


Today, almost all devices, from televisions to phones, from white goods to electronic household products, have become “smart”. A software, that is, an operating system, is needed for these devices to work. So what is the operating system?

What is the operating system for in this article based on computers? and what are the operating system types? We answered curious questions such as.

What is the operating system?

Electronic devices that come into our lives with the development of technology can now be managed with certain software. Electronic devices developed in the 1940s did not have any operating system.

Developed by Alan Turing in 1949, the Manchester Mark 1 is described as the device with the first operating system. Developed for IBM 704 approximately 7 years later, GM-NAA I / O went down in history as the first specific operating system. Working with General Motors, IBM introduced the operating system written in Assembly language.

In 1960, the foundations of Unix, the foundation of today’s operating systems, were laid in AT&T Bell Laboratories. Dennis Ritche rewrote the operating system that was introduced in 1970 in C. Today, operating systems such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, Minix, Sun Solaris and macOS still use the Unix infrastructure.

Microsoft released Windows 1.0, the first operating system with a graphical interface (GUI), in 1985. Later, Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel in 1991 and laid the foundation for today’s Linux-based operating systems.

The layer that transmits users’ actions and applications to the hardware is called the operating system. Computers, tablets, mobile phones, modems, web servers and many smart devices work with the operating system.

What does the operating system do?

The operating system is responsible for the communication between the hardware and the application. Apart from known operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, macOS, Pardus, Android and iOS, there are also operating systems used in embedded systems such as FreeRTOS and VxWorks.

Operating systems that allocate system resources for more than one process to take place, fulfill users’ requests faster and more securely. GNU / Linux-based operating systems, which are preferred especially in embedded systems, ensure that devices with very low hardware features work in the smoothest and most efficient way.

Operating system types

It is possible to basically divide the operating systems into 3, namely Unix, GNU / Linux and Microsoft Windows.

The Unix project, which changed greatly in 1978, started to develop in 2 different lines with the 7th version. The Berkley University team, which changed about 90 percent of the Unix source codes, developed the BSD system. The version called System V was commercially licensed by Bell Technology Laboratories. Operating systems such as HP-UX (HP), IRIX (SGI), SCO UNIXware, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD and macOS are Unix-based.

The concept of GNU / Linux is the combination of GNU developed by Richard Stallman in 1983 and the Linux kernel design coded by Linus Torvalds in 1991. GNU / Linux is considered to be open source and free. Although it is apologetic and open source, it is preferred by a few people as a desktop operating system. GNU / Linux has millions of users in areas such as servers and embedded systems. Operating systems such as Pardus, Kali Linux, Ubuntu, Arch and Fedora use the GNU / Linux kernel. In addition, the Android operating system is also based on GNU / Linux.

The Windows operating system, which was started to be developed by Microsoft in 1985, came up with the Windows 1.0 version in principle. Microsoft, Windows 2.0 (1987), Windows 3.0 (1990), Windows 95 (1995), Windows 98 (1998), Windows Me (2000), Windows XP (2001), Windows Vista (2007), Windows 7 (2009) It released Windows 8 (2012), Windows 8.1 (2014) and most recently Windows 10 (2015) operating systems that are actively updated today.


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