Scientists Come Closer to Solving the Greatest Mystery of the Formation of the Universe

This image is one of the most photogenic examples of the many turbulent stellar nurseries the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has observed during its 30-year lifetime. The portrait features the giant nebula NGC 2014 and its neighbour NGC 2020 which together form part of a vast star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, approximately 163 000 light-years away.

Stars, planets, galaxies and black holes … The universe, which has an unbelievable size, still contains many mysteries that have not been illuminated despite thousands of discoveries. Scientists have come very close to unraveling one of the biggest mysteries about the formation of the universe, thanks to new evidence from neutrinos that have a speed close to the speed of light.

At the beginning of the universe there was only matter and antimatter. Then only matter remained. So why? This question is one of the most basic mysteries of physics. The Big Bang theory, first introduced by the Russian cosmologist and mathematician Alexander Friedmann and the Belgian physicist Georges Lemaître in the 1920s, says the universe was formed from an extremely dense and hot spot about 13.8 billion years ago.

When the universe formed, matter and antimatter appeared, which destroyed each other when they faced it. So let’s ask the question above once more. How is there enough matter to create all the galaxies, stars and worlds in the universe? A study published in the journal Nature points out that scientists have made significant progress in answering this question.

The Big Bang is said to reveal a large number of subatomic particles called neutrinos
The theory called leptogenesis reveals that the Big Bang, the Big Bang, reveals a large number of subatomic particles called neutrinos. According to the theory, when these neutrinos were disintegrated, they created more matter than antimatter. According to research published in the journal Nature, Japanese scientists found findings in the T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) experiment supporting the theory of Leptogenesis.

The researchers detected more neutrino oscillations in the neutrinos (a quantum mechanics phenomenon called a neutrinone that could later be measured as a different species). This revealed that the two do not only act equally with each other, but actually act differently.

Findings can provide an important clue to seeking to understand how matter and antimatter are.
According to the study, this difference between a particle and its antimatter counterpart is called a CP violation. Researchers say that CP infringement is a powerful clue in the quest to understand what matter and antimatter are after the universe is born.

Physicists have not been able to completely solve the mystery of the cosmic antimatter, even if they prove that there is a CP violation in neutrinos. Seyda İpek, a theoretical physicist from the University of California, states that such a finding is not necessary but sufficient to prove the theory of Leptogenesis. Pointing out that the theory is very wide, İpek emphasizes that they are doing their best to discover all possibilities.

Similarly, Chang Kee Jung from Stony Brook University says they need more data and experiments to pinpoint how different the neutrinos and antineutrinos are.